all of his troops climb out of the trench and start running toward the enemy. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. This is a severe example of a _ schedule of reinforcement. One evening at a nightclub, however, she had a frightening experience that really turned her off the club scene. Operant conditioning focuses on using either reinforcement or punishment to increase or decrease a behaviour. Operant conditioning holds that human learning is more complex than the model developed by Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) and involves human intelligence and will operating (thus its name) on its environment rather than being a slave to stimuli. schedule of reinforcement (reinforcement schedule). Flashcards . Contrast reinforcement and punishment. is a method of learning that occurs through rewards and punishments for behavior. Pietro's symptoms are similar to those shown by Masserman's cats that were exposed to _ aversive stimulation. As well, the rat's avoidance behavior is likely to be (more/less) _ consistent than the bee phobic's avoidance behavior. More persistent is to less persistent as (high/low) _ resistance to extinction is to _ resistance to extinction. Eddy finds that he has to thump his television set twice before the picture will clear up. On a _ schedule, reinforcement is contingent upon the first response during a varying period of time. Undergraduate psychology quiz on the two main forms of conditioning, operant and classical conditioning. Match. If Jason is extremely persistent in asking Neem out for a date, she will occasionally accept his invitation. Erin could likely have speeded up this process through the use of a (give the abbreviation) _ procedure. Learning associations between one's own personal actions and resulting events is most relevant to the process of: A) classical conditioning. Gina often goes for a walk through the woods, and even more often she does yardwork. In these examples, the teacher is using reinforcement to strengthen the hand-raising behavior and punishment to weaken the talking out of turn behavior. contrast; reinforcement; opposite; response. Losing your wallet by being careless is an example of a (negative/positive) _ punisher, while getting a shock by being careless is an example of a _ punisher (assuming in each case that the behavior _ in frequency). This is an example of what type of contingency? Unfortunately, due to other commitments, she actually spends 45 minutes exercising, followed by a 15-minute sauna, and a half hour drinking coffee and reading the paper. When the intruder saw that Otto was awake, he stabbed him and fled. According to Mineka, there are limitations in the extent to which experimental demonstrations of avoidance are analogous to human phobias. The terms reinforcer or punisher refer to the specific _ that follows a behavior, whereas the terms reinforcement or punishment refer to the _ or_ whereby the probability of a behavior is altered by its consequences. operant conditioning the organism develops the expectation that their response will be rein-forced, which also includes latent learning without proximate reinforcement (Myers 2008: p. 243). learned industriousness; positively reinforced. On a fixed interval schedule, reinforcement is contingent upon the first response _ a fixed period of time. Getting injured is a (primary/secondary) _ punisher for the behavior of. Eduardo got reprimanded by the boss for goofing around, and he also became less likely to goof around. Search. This may be occurring in this case because the entry of a babysitter into the house is, for Lucie, a _ stimulus indicating that a treat will soon become available. When Tamara first moved to the city, she went out each evening and had a great time. Definition. A cat could escape from the box by a simple response such as pulling a cord or pushing a pole, but when first constrained, the cats took a long time to get out. Specialty. Log in Sign up. If it only sometimes receives a treat when it begs for one, its begging is being maintained on a(n) _ schedule of reinforcement. B.F. Skinner: Term. B. F. Skinner's work elaborated what E. L. Thorndike had called: A) shaping. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. When Trish's friend Laura spread some nasty rumors about her, Trish stopped talking to her. Copy and Edit. Lucie is ecstatic when Tamsen is her babysitter, and completely indifferent when Natasha is her babysitter. Jimmy is doing math homework with his mother supervising. 71% average accuracy. His mother gives him a sweet for every 3 questions he answers correctly. Gravity. This may be an example of an extinction effect known as _. When Erin was babysitting Lucie, it took hours before Lucie would stop pestering her for a treat (Erin had been instructed not to give her any treats). D) operant conditioning. This is similar to a behavior management technique known as _ that is used to guide animals. _, Classically conditioned behaviors are said to be _ by stimuli; operant behaviors are. Laura tried very hard to get Trish to talk to her. Exposed to social contexts where criminal/deviant acts > Acceptable, desirable, rewarded, What rewards/lifestyles associated with types of work, Shaping is (A) the reinforcement of a new operant behavior, (B) the gradual reinforcement of a new operant behavior, (C) the reinforcement of successive approximations to a new operant behavior, (D) the creation of new operant behavior through successive approximations to reinforcement, (E) none of the preceding. Operant conditioning can also be used to decrease a behavior via the removal of a desirable outcome or the application of a negative outcome. Write. When visiting a foreign resort last summer, you frequently encountered a group of children in the street who were trying to sell souvenirs. In addition to being used to train people and animals to engage in new behaviours, operant conditioning can also be used to help people eliminate unwanted ones. Ahmed found school only slightly interesting. (A) VI 20-sec, (B) VT 20-sec, (C) FT 20-sec, (D) FI 20-sec, (E) none of the preceding. Mowrer's two-process theory seems highly applicable to obsessive-compulsive disorder in that the occurrence of an obsessive thought is associated with a(n) _ anxiety, while performance of a compulsive behavior is associated with a(n) _ in anxiety. Through operant conditioning, an individual makes an association between a particular behavior and a consequence (Skinner, 1938). In general, the higher the requirement, the (longer/shorter) _ the pause. On a _ schedule (abbreviated _), reinforcement is contingent upon the first response after a fixed period of time. D (because "LEVER PRESS > shock" is the effective contingency), If the rat does not press the lever, then it does not receive a shock. This is most likely an example of a(n) _ schedule of reinforcement. Conditioning. chuah_yi_ning. According to the _, walking through the woods could still be used as a reinforcer for yardwork given that one restricts the frequency of walking to _ its _ level. The pigeon then steps on the treadle 10 times, following which it receives food. _, removed (or substracted); presented (or added). behavioral bliss point; optimal (maximum); bliss. Operant or instrumental conditioning is a form of learning in which the consequences of behaviour lead to changes in the probability that the behaviour will occur. On a _ schedule (abbreviated _), reinforcement is contingent upon the first response after a varying interval of time. Obert did not want to go to school one morning and so pretended that he was ill. Sure enough, his mother fell for the trick and let him stay home that day. Regardless of how often the lever was pressed, the food pellet was only delivered upon pressing the lever after 12 seconds. A generalized secondary reinforcer is one that has become a reinforcer because it has been associated with (A) a primary reinforcer, (B) a secondary reinforcer, (C) several secondary reinforcers, (D) several primary reinforcers, or (E) several reinforcers (either primary or secondary). Browse. Term . Thus, Tamsen is an (give the abbreviation) _ for the availability of treats, while Natasha is an _. Edit. The basic principles involve the manipulation of consequences which follow behavior in order to modify behavior. When Trish's friend Laura spread some nasty rumors about her, Trish stopped talking to her. The basic difference between classical conditioning and operant conditioning is that Classical Conditioning is one in which the organism learns something through association, i.e. When Renee was in elementary school, she was cruelly teased by a classmate each recess. PLAY. This produces a _ pattern of responding. Thondike (1874- 1949) was the pioneer in studying this kind of learning. Section Learning Objectives . On a _ schedule, reinforcement is contingent on emitting a series of responses at a specific rate. Operant conditioning, also called instrumental conditioning, is a method for modifying behavior (an operant) which utilizes contingencies between a discriminative stimulus, an operant response, and a reinforcer to change the probability of a response occurring again in that situation. "If I'm not a success in every aspect of my life, my family will reject me." PLAY. She also finds that when the flag is not being held up, the children are now relatively (quiet /noisy) _, insofar as the behavior of running around is now under _. It is said to "_" for the behavior. Dersu often carried a lucky charm with him when he went out hunting. To solve this problem, she announces that whenever she is holding up a flag, the children can run around and do whatever they want. (A) during, (B) before, (C) after, (D) none of the preceding. According to the _, walking through the woods could be used as a _ for yardwork. Behaviors that are performed for their own sake are said to be _ motivated; behaviors that are performed to achieve some additional incentive are said to be _ motivated. For children who are old enough to understand language, punishment. B) behaviorism. In keeping with certain research findings on experimental _, the person most likely to suffer symptoms of PTSD is _. This potential for punishment may lead to a decrease in disruptive behaviors. 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