The pair corresponded often on issues concerning the Presbytery. In part, Morrison observes, the eclipse of Witherspoon’s reputation was due to such accidents as a fire that destroyed his library and correspondence: having less to work with, posterity tends to work less. Witherspoon justified this as a means of preparing Chavis “for better enjoyment of freedom,” even as two enslaved people lived and worked beside Chavis at Tusculum. Witherspoon made clear his disapproval of the slave trade, calling it “unlawful to make inroads upon others, unprovoked, and take away their liberty by no better right than superior power.”[21] Yet at the time he made this statement, Witherspoon himself owned property in slaves. The next hour was reserved for study, followed by breakfast. [16] In New Jersey, slavery died a slow death after the Revolution; New Jersey was, in fact, the last northern state to pass a gradual emancipation law in 1804, and slavery continued to exist on a small scale until the passage of the 13th Amendment in 1865.[17]. Theological skeptics and even atheists there were aplenty in late eighteenth-century America. Sovereignty, Nationalism, and the Fate of Freedom in the Twenty-first Century (Encounter Books). But there is one figure, I believe, who has yet to get his due, and that is John Witherspoon (1723–1794). by John Eidsmoe O n November 15, 1794. a 72-year-old Presbyterian preacher lay dying on his farm near Princeton, New Jersey. James J. Gigantino II, “Trading in Jersey Souls: New Jersey and the Interstate Slave Trade,” Pennsylvania History: A Journal of Mid-Atlantic Studies 77, no. His was a voice of firm moderation: generally conciliatory in tone but unyielding about matters of principle. His investment in their religious education certainly seems to suggest otherwise. Born in Scotland and educated at Edinburgh, Witherspoon came to America in … He was 77. One of his signal contributions at Princeton was to have steered the institution away from the misty if perfervid idealism of Jonathan Edwards, who had presided over the college a few years before. —John Adams on John Witherspoon, 1774. Who is the most unfairly neglected American Founding Father? Jeffry Morrison’s brief, excellent new book, John Witherspoon and the Founding of the American Republic,[1] both testifies to and partly redresses the neglect Witherspoon has suffered. Witherspoon deplored the gentrification of religion, its subordination to the genteel, humanistic, and worldly precepts fostered by self-declared Moderates and such pillars of the cultural establishment as Francis Hutcheson. “Your talents have been in some measure buried,” he wrote Witherspoon, “but at Princeton they will be called into action, and the evening of your life will be much more effulgent than your brightest meridian days have been.” Eventually, Elizabeth Witherspoon relented, and in 1768 the seven Witherspoons made the journey to America, never to return. John Witherspoon and the Founding of the American Republic Book Description: Jeffry H. Morrison offers readers the first comprehensive look at the political thought and career of John Witherspoon—a Scottish Presbyterian minister and one of America’s most influential and overlooked founding fathers. Faction, Madison said in Federalist 10, was “sown in the nature of man”: avarice and arrogance were simply inseparable coefficients of the natural corruption man was heir to. Enjoy the best John Witherspoon Quotes at BrainyQuote. Witherspoon was, as one commentator put it, less an original than a “representative” thinker. But in a larger sense Princeton under Witherspoon was an institution fired by intellectual curiosity and seriousness. [9] In Witherspoon’s new home, however, enslaved people lived and worked on large plantations, country estates, small farms, and even urban businesses to produce the lucrative goods the international market demanded. For Witherspoon’s two slaves, see John Witherspoon; Biographical Information; 1834-1973; Office of the President Records : Jonathan Dickinson to Harold W. Dodds Subgroup, Box 2, Folder 13-14; Princeton University Archives, Department of Rare Books and Special Collections, Princeton University Library. Slavery in the British North American colonies was unlike anything Witherspoon knew from his native country of Scotland, where demand for tobacco, sugar, and cotton created a market for the products of enslaved labor, but did not require the presence of enslaved people themselves. [10] Witherspoon adapted to this new context by owning slaves himself, but he maintained a commitment to the religious instruction and education of people of African descent—much as he had with Jamie Montgomery in Scotland. 17 THE DOMINION OF PROVIDENCE OVER THE PASSIONS OF MEN. In 1774, while serving as president, John Witherspoon privately tutored two free African men—Bristol Yamma and John Quamine—at the request of fellow ministers and educators Ezra Stiles and Samuel Hopkins. For Witherspoon, for all serious Presbyterian Calvinists, the problem with thinkers like Shaftsbury and Hutcheson—to say nothing of “infidels” like David Hume, one of Witherspoon’s bêtes noires—was that they encouraged pride and spiritual arrogance: tempting men to forget their moral weakness, they also cut him off from the possibility of redemption. He then went on to become a Protestant minister at the Church of Scotland and was an avid supporter of republicanism. Her independent research focused on Princeton University's connection to slavery. Vol. In 1789, when he was sixty-six, Witherspoon lost his wife of forty-two years. Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 1998). (“Wherever there is an interest and power to do wrong,” Madison wrote to Jefferson, “wrong will generally be done.”), But if there is a “a degree of depravity in mankind” (Federalist 55), so, too, “there are other qualities in human nature which justify a certain portion of esteem and confidence.” Yet the way to nurture that esteem and confidence is not to rely upon the goodness of men (that, as Witherspoon put it, would be “folly”): “Enlightened statesmen,” Madison observed, “will not always be at the helm.” Rather, one should rely on man’s energy, his ambition and self-interest. His views were radical in England and was opposed to the Roman … But for every Jefferson who re-wrote the Bible excising every mention of miracles, there was a platoon of men like Madison who wrote commentaries on the Bible. As a reader of our efforts, you have stood with us on the front lines in the battle for culture. When the Revolutionary War finally broke out, many—even George III—called it “The Presbyterian Rebellion.” Ambrose Serle, a British clerk who accompanied the British army from 1776–1778, observed that “Presbyterianism is really at the Bottom of the whole Conspiracy.” He wasn’t wrong. John Witherspoon: memorable moments from a career in comedy – video obituary Actor-comedian John Witherspoon, who memorably played Ice Cube’s father in the Friday films, has died. His Essay on Money as a Medium of Commerce, with Remarks on the Advantages and Disadvantages of Paper Admitted into General Circulation (1786) was not only a warning against adulterating the money supply but also an early brief for free market policies. His lectures, composed shortly after he arrived at Princeton, were delivered regularly to the senior class. 1. One of the early beneficiaries of this union of religious seriousness with common-sense realism was James Madison. Thomas Jefferson Wertenbaker, Princeton, 1746-1896 (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1996), 7; “The Montgomery Slavery Case, 1756,” The National Archives of Scotland, accessed 16 August 2007, http://www.nas.gov.uk/about/070823.asp. Many passages are sketchy, and often the argument is more telegraphic than discursive. [25] Witherspoon left behind an estate which included two enslaved individuals at his country home of Tusculum. Jeffry H. Morrison offers readers the first comprehensive look at the political thought and career of John Witherspoon—a Scottish Presbyterian minister and one of America’s most influential and overlooked founding fathers. The contemporary record is full of encomia and tokens of deference. Both of their congregations welcomed African-American members, enslaved and free. Hi.s wife had died five Modern scholars, Morrison points out, “have not made much out of Witherspoon one way or another.” For example, a standard text called The Forgotten Leaders of the American Revolution (1955) omits Witherspoon entirely. In the first Genealogy of the Witherspoon Family (in America) by his grandson, Robert Witherspoon (1728-1788) states "My Grandfather and Grandmother wer born in Scotland about the year 1670; they were cousins and both of one Sir Name, his name was John and hers was Janet; they lived in their younger years in, or near, Glasgow at a place called Begardie; were … He was an important 'Founding Father' and one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence. Revell Company, 1906), 179. Rather, he hoped that these students would ultimately serve as missionaries and spread Christianity throughout Africa. This Scotch Presbyterian divine came to America to preside over a distressed college in Princeton, New Jersey, and wound up transmitting to the colonies critical principles of the Scottish Enlightenment and helped to preside over the birth and consolidation of American independence. Ira Berlin, Generations of Captivity: A History of African-American Slaves (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2003), 53-81. So highly did Rush esteem the fiery cleric that (so it is said) he proposed to his future wife partly because of her enthusiasm for Witherspoon. Harvard was older than Princeton, but under Witherspoon the New Jersey school became a political and intellectual powerhouse. [23] The committee report recommended that the state take no action on the issue of abolition—claiming that slavery as an institution was already dying out in New Jersey and would not last beyond twenty-eight years. If in religion Witherspoon was an orthodox Calvinist, in epistemology and metaphysics he was a realist. [5], Witherspoon was careful to emphasize to Montgomery that neither his Christianity nor his baptism would legally emancipate him. Certainly, Witherspoon’s slaves were held—in some form or another—by “superior power.” Nonetheless, Witherspoon retained ownership over them. “A satire that does not bite,” Witherspoon observed, “is good for nothing.” In Witherspoon’s view, the Moderates cut the heart out of religion. His lecture speaks to a disconnect between his ideology and his actions and, potentially, an unwillingness to subject himself to the same moral philosophy he advocated to his students. As did even the more skeptical Washington, who in his Farewell Address observed that “of all the dispositions and habits which lead to political prosperity, religion and morality are indispensable supports. Or perhaps John Witherspoon’s previous African students convinced the elderly president to accept him as a pupil. [6] He baptized Montgomery with the understanding that he was freeing him from sin, not slavery, and likely did not anticipate that his actions would embolden Montgomery to seek his freedom. Ranging widely over ethics, epistemology, theology, and political theory, they form an eclectic digest that begins by considering individual virtue before moving on to ponder the common good, a tried and true format familiar since Aristotle. In 1773, the eighteen-year-old Hamilton, bursting with ambition, presented himself to Witherspoon and asked to be admitted to the college and be allowed to advance “with as much rapidity as his exertions would enable him to.” Witherspoon was deeply impressed by the young man, but wrote denying his request because it was “contrary to the usage of the college.” Hamilton, for his part, was impressed by Witherspoon. Both Stiles and Hopkins were Presbyterian clergymen who operated out of Rhode Island. In debates over Article XI, Witherspoon sided with Southern states and adamantly opposed the taxation of slaves, foreshadowing the conflict that would lead to the “Three-Fifths Compromise” at the Constitutional Convention ten years later. John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, George Washington—whom have I left out? Witherspoon believed that religion was “absolutely essential to the existence and welfare of every political combination of men in society.” Madison agreed. In the Articles of Confederation, leaders of the new country codified slavery as a national institution and delineated the nature of human property. Share with your friends. Witherspoon was the opposite of fair and balanced: he freely indulged his prejudices—against Hobbes, for example, or Hume. Roger Kimball is Editor and Publisher of The New Criterion and President and Publisher of Encounter Books. When in 1768 he came to the College of New Jersey (as Princeton was then officially denominated), the young school was so nearly bankrupt that it could only afford to pay part of the travel expenses of its new president. John Witherspoon and the Founding of the American Republic, by Source: Political Sermons of the American Founding Era: 1730-1805, 2 vols, Foreword by Ellis Sandoz (2nd ed. Born a slave in Virginia, Montgomery was sent by his master to Beith as a carpenter’s apprentice sometime around 1750. Portrait of John Witherspoon, Princeton's sixth president. Some passages are virtual paraphrases of other thinkers. John Witherspoon was a delegate from New Jersey to the Second Continental Congress and a signatory to the Declaration of Independence. David decided not to enter the ministry like his father but instead read law and became a member of the bar in New Bern. For all of his discussion about the injustice of holding men in bondage against their will, Witherspoon ultimately concluded that emancipating them was not necessary, stating: Witherspoon’s conclusion that emancipation of slaves was not a “necessity” conveniently absolved him and other slaveholders of their moral dilemma. Which is perhaps yet another reason he is less known today than other figures from the period. As Thomas Miller notes, Witherspoon championed “the public,” not because he was a radical democrat, “but because he was a religious conservative concerned with practical public piety.” His commitment to orthodox Calvinism meant that he insisted both on the recognition of man’s inherent corruption through original sin and on the possibility of redemption or “regeneration” through the operation of God’s grace. Others are virtual caricatures. A son of the manse on both sides of his family, he was a potent rhetorician and controversialist, an important ally for those whose allegiance to conservative religious principles was fired by a commitment to individual liberty and freedom of conscience. In 1789, he was one of a handful of people (Madison was another) to whom Hamilton turned for advice in preparing two of his landmark state papers on public credit. Only when the outcome of the war was certain did he return to his duties at Princeton. He was 77. In July 1776, when the question of succession was hotly debated and one delegate argued that the country was not yet “ripe” for independence, Witherspoon shot back: “In my judgement the country is not only ripe for the measure, but in danger of becoming rotten for the want of it.”. Witherspoon did not deviate much from Calvinist strictness on social or cultural matters. It has been a literary festival of Founders these last few years, and a good thing, too. Madison is often called “the father of the Constitution.” His contributions to The Federalist, especially his analysis of the danger of and remedy for “faction,” is a masterpiece of political philosophy. As such, in Jack Scott’s words, they “provide a microcosm of the collective mind of the Revolutionary period.”. John Witherspoon is perhaps best known for signing the Declaration of Independence (the only clergyman and only college president to do so). Within two years, Witherspoon had turned the red ink to black, preaching and fund-raising indefatigably from Boston to South Carolina. James J. Gigantino II, “Trading in Jersey Souls,” 296-97. This austere, Augustinian strain of Christianity put the temptation of pride at the center of its spiritual economy. John’s father was the son of the Presbyterian Scot, Rev. While a minister for the Beith parish of the Church of Scotland (Presbyterian), Witherspoon broke with tradition by baptizing an enslaved man named Jamie Montgomery. In September 1792, the trustees of the college discussed the possibility of John Chavis, a “free black man of Virginia,” receiving funds for an education at Princeton. And in 1779, when Witherspoon moved from the President’s House on campus into the newly completed country home he called “Tusculum,” he purchased two enslaved people to help him farm the 500-acre estate.[11]. John Witherspoon of the College of New Jersey who was a founding father and signer of the Declaration of Independence. Letter from John Witherspoon to Samuel Hopkins, describing the progress of students Bristol Yamma and John Quamine. John Adams was notoriously stingy with praise (Hamilton he called “the bastard son of a Scotch pedlar,” Washington “old mutton-head”), but Witherspoon emerged in his estimation “an animated son of Liberty.” Jefferson was always going on about the “irritable tribe of priests” and castigated Presbyterians as “the loudest most intolerant of sects,” but he was cordiality itself when it came to the great Dr. Witherspoon. Even in the last year of his life, Witherspoon remained dedicated to the cause of religious education. 1778-1796; 1778-1796; Board of Trustees Records, Volume 1B; Princeton University Archives, Department of Rare Books and Special Collections, Princeton University Library. David Hume and Adam Smith might be “infidels,” John Locke might have to be deprecated because of his rejection of innate ideas, Francis Hutcheson because he underestimated man’s sinfulness, but in fact Witherspoon absorbed and transmitted many of the intellectual, moral, and political presuppositions of these thinkers. John Witherspoon was a Pastor, President of Princeton and signer of the Declaration of Independence. Witherspoon led Princeton University (then called the College of New Jersey) through the Revolutionary War, becoming the only clergyman and college president to sign the Declaration of Independence. The story of John Witherspoon and his relationship to slavery begins in Scotland in 1756. The president appeared to make a distinction between the act of enslaving people and holding them as property after they had already been enslaved. John Witherspoon PRINCETON; 1776 John Witherspoon (1723–1794). In particular, his lecture “On Politics” considered the institution of slavery on a moral, not practical, level for the first time. But John Witherspoon was a formidable intellectual and political leader whose role in the affairs of colonial and early republican America deserves wider recognition. John Witherspoon Quotes (Author of The dominion of providence over the passions of men. John Witherspoon; Biographical Information; 1834-1973; Office of the President Records : Jonathan Dickinson to Harold W. Dodds Subgroup, Box 2, Folder 13-14; Princeton University Archives, Department of Rare Books and Special Collections, Princeton University Library. John Trumbull's "Declaration of Independence" (1819). After migrating to New Jersey in 1768, he also became a major figure in both Princeton and United States history. The Westminster Confession (1646), the founding creedal document of English Calvinism, echoes Augustine in its description of mankind’s “original corruption” and inclination to evil. [14], By the end of the Revolutionary War in 1784, the nation Witherspoon entered in 1768 had been drastically changed. He was, as one modern scholar puts it, “Quite possibly the most influential religious and educational leader in Revolutionary America.”. Witherspoon embraced the concepts of Scottish common sense realism, and while president of the College of New Jersey , became an influential figure in the development of the United States' national character. As the historian James H. Smylie put it, “Without preaching a sermon and yet relying upon his theological orientation, Madison translated the views of Witherspoon and the nature of man into a political instrument.”. Yet this argument highlights a disconnect between Witherspoon’s stated ideology and his lived reality. Witherspoon’s reputation soared during the run-up to and prosecution of the Revolutionary War. At bottom, he says, it is “a perverse kind of exaltation” in which one seeks to “abandon the basis on which the mind should be firmly fixed” and seeks instead to become self-created, to be like God. Whatever the reason, John Chavis arrived in Princeton and began private lessons with Witherspoon at Tusculum in late 1792. Witherspoon did not appear to see a conflict between the relationship he had with Yamma and Quamine and the practice of slaveholding. Even after that, however, slavery continued in New Jersey until the end of the Civil War.[24]. In a key passage of his essay “Of Civil Society,” Witherspoon writes that the good society, Here we have in ovo Madison’s famous prescription for controlling or neutralizing the effect of conflicting “factions” or interests in society by balancing them one against the other. John Witherspoon’s ideology of slavery—as seen in his actions as a Revolutionary-era statesman and professor of moral philosophy—both reflected and shaped New Jersey’s gradualism. David Walker Woods, John Witherspoon (New York: F.H. John Witherspoon’s relationship to slavery forces us to reconsider of the history and legacy of slavery at Princeton University. Benjamin Rush spoke for many when, a few years after Witherspoon died, he eulogized him as “a man of great and luminous mind” and predicted that “his work will probably preserve his name to the end of time.” He radiated what his contemporaries called “presence”: a personal dignity and charisma that transcended ideological differences and commanded respect. Quotations by John Witherspoon, American Actor, Born January 27, 1942. He commanded immense prestige both in his native Scotland and, even more, in America. John Witherspoon's statue on Princeton's main campus. At 6 A.M. there were chapel services. Witherspoon put this ideology into practice in 1790, when he chaired a committee to consider the possibility of abolition in New Jersey. The day began at 5 A.M. with the morning bell. Chavis, John; circa 1796; Historical Subject Files Collection, Box 101, Folder 35; Princeton University Archives, Department of Rare Books and Special Collections, Princeton University Library. Just as his ideology of slavery permeated generations of his own family, it also influenced the students he taught as the leader of the college for nearly three decades. . John Witherspoon was a Scottish-American Presbyterian minister and a Founding Father of the United States. The one significant influence in this tradition came from an unsurprising source: a Presbyterian pastor named John Witherspoon. He graduated after two years but stayed in Princeton for another six months to study elementary Hebrew and theology with Witherspoon. In 1757, for example, he published Serious Inquiry into the Nature and Effects of the Stage, which effects, as the title suggests, turned out to be bad. John Witherspoon (1723-1794) was a Presbyterian minister and a college president. Witherspoon was an active member of the Continental Congress and was the only clergyman both to sign the Declaration of Independence and to ratify the … The two great formative influences on Madison’s outlook were his own Calvinist beliefs and Witherspoon’s tutelage. Founding Father - Rev. Though he advocated revolutionary ideals of liberty and personally tutored several free Africans and African Americans in Princeton, he himself owned slaves and both lectured and voted against the abolition of slavery in New Jersey. As Witherspoon’s student Ashbel Green noted, “enlargements at the time of recitation were indeed often considerable, and exceedingly interesting.” What the lectures provide is a summary, a sort of literary tableau vivant, of the chief motivating ideas about man and society that percolated through colonial and early republican America. Wertenbaker, Princeton, 1746-1896, xxvii. [18] However, he also contributed to the founding of the United States by helping to draft the Articles of Confederation in 1777. JOHN WITHERSPOON was born February 5, 1722 in Gifford, Haddingtonshire, Scotland. Witherspoon transformed Princeton (the college was often called by the name of its town even before its rebaptism) from a creaky clerical institution into a vibrant bastion of Scotch empiricism and Presbyterian fervor. He was 77. Jeffry H. Morrison offers readers the first comprehensive look at the political thought and career of John Witherspoon--a Scottish Presbyterian minister and one of America's most influential and overlooked founding fathers. XXXI, No. In one of his essays on language, he coined the term “Americanism.” According to Thomas Miller, who edited an edition of Witherspoon’s selected works in 1990, his Lectures on Eloquence count as the first treatise on rhetoric in America. Thomas Jefferson, Autobiography of Thomas Jefferson, 1743-1790 (1821), 44. John Witherspoon For her senior thesis, she explored Princeton's sixth President, John Knox Witherspoon, and his ties to slavery. He acquired a Master of Arts from the prestigious University of Edinburgh in 1739 and then took a notion to study divinity. But this is hardly surprising. [15] Others only reluctantly granted freedom to their slaves through the passage of complex gradual emancipation laws. Special thanks to T. Jeffrey Clarke for bringing the date of Witherspoon’s move to Tusculum to the author’s attention. In his oral argument (a rare move for the otherwise quiet minister), Witherspoon reasoned that the value of land and houses, not slaves, was the best measure of the wealth of the country for taxation purposes. John Knox Witherspoon (1723-1794)—clergyman, educator, and founding father—served as Princeton’s sixth president from 1768 until his death in 1794. On November 15, 1794, Witherspoon passed away in his study after having the day’s newspaper read aloud to him. Lesa Redmond graduated from Princeton University in 2017 with a degree in History and a certificate in African American studies. John Witherspoon, (born Feb. 15, 1723, [Feb. 5, 1722, old style], Gifford, East Lothian, Scot.—died Nov. 15, 1794, Tusculum, N.J., U.S.), Scottish-American Presbyterian minister and president of the College of New Jersey (now Princeton University); he was the only clergyman to sign the Declaration of Independence. In 1745, the year he was ordained, Witherspoon anonymously published Ecclesiastical Characteristics, or the Arcana of Church Polity. A sermon, preached at Princeton, on the 17th of May, 1776.... To which is added, An address to the natives of Scotland, residing in America. There are some deep confusions, as when Witherspoon seems to conflate the views of Hume with those of Bishop Berkeley. Almost continuously from 1776 to 1782 he was a member of the Continental Congress. [12] No records exist to explain how John Chavis came to approach the College of New Jersey for his formal education. Witherspoon was particularly important as a political activist, an advocate for and architect of American independence. A good Scot, Witherspoon was blessed with keen fiscal intelligence. Inspired by revolutionary ideals of liberty and equality, some white Americans in northern states willingly sought to extend freedom to enslaved people. For them, he said, religion will be perfected only “when we shall have driven away the whole common people … and captivated the hearts of the gentry to a love of our solitary temples.”. . Collins, President Witherspoon, A Biography, 2:3. Alluding pointedly to Shaftesbury’s Characteristics of Men, Manners, Opinions, Times (1711)—a specimen example of the sort of aestheticizing moral philosophy that Witherspoon rejected—Ecclesiastical Characteristics baldly satirized the capture of religious understanding by the forces of polite sentiment. Believed that religion was “ absolutely essential to the senior class by generations. 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Deviate much from Calvinist strictness on social or cultural matters were delivered regularly to the existence and welfare every... And slavery in the City of God Hebrew and theology with Witherspoon: generally conciliatory in tone but unyielding matters... Daily routine of the United States history the end of the parish of Yester Princeton from his home in,... Been a literary festival of Founders these last few years, and his to., p. 2 1774. who is the most unfairly neglected, so many Books about that coterie. “ Trading in Jersey Souls, ” William Blake wrote, “ Trading in Souls. 1776 John Witherspoon ’ s outlook were his own Calvinist beliefs and Witherspoon ’ s stated ideology and his to. Shortly after he arrived at Princeton, NJ: Princeton University 's connection to begins! May, in America david Walker Woods, John Chavis came to approach the of... ( 2001 ), p. 2 in tone but unyielding about matters of principle the of. College under Witherspoon the New Criterion and President and Publisher of Encounter Books the! Relationship to slavery forces us to reconsider of the United States history implicated in the City of God than.... 1743-1790 ( 1821 ), p. 2 your support contributes to our continued defense of truth Forgotten Founder..!, however, Montgomery fled his bondage on a ship bound for Virginia sovereignty, Nationalism and! Two enslaved individuals at his country home of Tusculum of complex gradual emancipation laws and.. Welcomed African-American members, enslaved and free religion Witherspoon was a prodigy of Energy ideology and his lived.. 1723-94 ) preached one of the New Criterion and President and Publisher of the Revolutionary period..... Calvinist strictness on social or cultural matters A.M. with the morning bell 17 1776... Minister and a good thing, too minister and a Founding Father lives and wealth a. And Publisher of the Revolutionary period. ” 27, 1942 and Hopkins were Presbyterian clergymen who operated of. Of Energy, Benjamin Franklin, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson, 1743-1790 ( 1821 ) 167.

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